Pediatrics & Neonatology
Conditions we treat
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type. It is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior which is not appropriate for a person's age.The symptoms appear before a person is twelve years old, are present for more than six months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such as school, home, or recreational activities). In children, problems paying attention may result in poor school performance. Although it causes impairment, particularly in modern society, many children with ADHD have a good attention span for tasks they find interesting] Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed mental disorder in children and adolescents, the exact cause is unknown in the majority of cases.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These episodes may occur a few times a day or a few times per week. Depending on the person, they may become worse at night or with exercise. Asthma is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Environmental factors include exposure to air pollution and allergens. Other potential triggers include medications such as aspirin and beta blockers.Diagnosis is usually based on the pattern of symptoms, response to therapy over time, and spirometry. Asthma is classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate.] It may also be classified as atopic or non-atopic, where atopy refers to a predisposition toward developing a type hypersensitivityreaction.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; formerly chronic lung disease of infancy) is a chronic lung disease in which premature infants, usually those who were treated with supplemental oxygen, require long-term oxygen. It is more common in infants with low birth weight and those who receive prolonged mechanical ventilation to treat respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). It results in significant morbidity and mortality. The definition of BPD has continued to evolve since then primarily due to changes in the population, such as more survivors at earlier gestational ages, and improved neonatal management including surfactant, antenatal glucocorticoid therapy, and less aggressive mechanical ventilation.
A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth. Signs and symptoms depend on the specific type of problem.] Symptoms can vary from none to life-threatening. When present they may include rapid breathing, bluish skin, poor weight gain, and feeling tired. It does not cause chest pain. Most congenital heart problems do not occur with other diseases. Complications that can result from heart defects include heart failure.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infection caused by a group of viruses. It typically begins with a feverand feeling generally unwell. This is followed a day or two later by flat discolored spots or bumps that may blister, on the hands, feet, and mouth, and occasionally buttocks and groin. Signs and symptoms normally appear 3–6 days after exposure to the virus. The rash generally goes away on its own in about a week. Fingernail and toenail loss may occur a few weeks later and these then regrow.
The viruses that cause HFMD are spread through close personal contact, through the air from coughing, and the feces of an infected person. Contaminated objects can also spread the disease. Coxsackievirus A16 is the most common cause and Enterovirus 71 is the second-most common cause. Other strains of coxsackievirus and enterovirus can also be responsible. Some people may carry and pass on the virus despite having no symptoms of disease. Other animals are not involved. Diagnosis can often be made based on symptoms. Occasionally throat or stool sample may be tested for the virus.
Hydronephrosis—literally "water inside the kidney"—refers to distension and dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces, usually caused by urinary retention due to obstruction of the free flow of urine from the kidney. Untreated, it leads to progressive atrophy of the kidney.One or both kidneys may be affected. In cases of hydroureteronephrosis, there is distention of both the ureter and the renal pelvis and calices.The signs and symptoms of hydronephrosis depend upon whether the obstruction is acute or chronic, partial or complete, unilateral or bilateral. Hydronephrosis that occurs acutely with sudden onset as caused by a kidney stone) can cause intense pain in the flank area (between the hips and ribs).
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli. Typically symptoms include some combination of productive or dry cough, chest pain, fever, and trouble breathing.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that usually causes little or no problem in most people. These diseases include hay fever, food allergies, atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and anaphylaxis. Symptoms may include red eyes, an itchy rash, sneezing, a runny nose, shortness of breath, or swelling. Food intolerances and food poisoning are separate conditions.
Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information. Individuals with APD usually have normal structure and function of the outer, middle and inner ear (peripheral hearing). However, they cannot process the information they hear in the same way as others do, which leads to difficulties in recognizing and interpreting sounds, especially the sounds composing speech. It is thought that these difficulties arise from dysfunction in the central nervous system.
Speech disorders or speech impediments are a type of communication disorder where 'normal' speech is disrupted. This can mean stuttering, lisps, etc. Someone who is unable to speak due to a speech disorder is considered mute. Classifying speech into normal and disordered is more problematic than it first seems. By a strict classification, only 5% to 10% of the population has a completely normal manner of speaking (with respect to all parameters) and healthy voice; all others suffer from one disorder or another.
Snoring is the vibration of respiratory structures and the resulting sound due to obstructed air movement during breathing while sleeping. In some cases, the sound may be soft, but in most cases, it can be loud and unpleasant. Snoring during sleep may be a sign, or first alarm, of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Research suggests that snoring is one of the factors of sleep deprivation Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep. Each pause can last for a few seconds to a few minutes and they happen many times a night. In the most common form, this follows loud snoring. There may be a choking or snorting sound as breathing resumes. As it disrupts normal sleep, those affected may experience sleepiness or feel tired during the day. In children it may cause problems in school or hyperactivity.
Pediatric Ears, Nose & Throat (ENT)
Genu varum (also called bow-leggedness, bandiness, bandy-leg, and tibia vara), is a varus deformity marked by (outward) bowing at the knee, which means that the lower leg is angled inward (medially) in relation to the thigh's axis, giving the limb overall the appearance of an archer's bow. Usually medial angulation of both lower limb bones (femur and tibia) is involved. If a child is sickly, either with rickets or any other ailment that prevents ossification of the bones, or is improperly fed, the bowed condition may persist. Thus the chief cause of this deformity is rickets. Skeletal problems, infection, and tumors can also affect the growth of the leg, sometimes giving rise to a one-sided bow-leggedness. The remaining causes are occupational, especially among jockeys, and from physical trauma, the condition being very likely to supervene after accidents involving the condyles of the femur.
Clubfoot is a birth defect where one or both feet are rotated inwards and downwards. The affected foot, calf, and leg may be smaller. In about half of those affected, both feet are involved. Most cases are not associated with other problems. Without treatment, people walk on the sides of their feet which causes issues with walking.
Hip dysplasia is a congenital or developmental deformation or misalignment of the hip joint. It does not typically produce symptoms in children less than a year old. Screening all babies for the condition by physical examination is recommended. About 7.5% of hip replacements are done to treat problems which have arisen from hip dysplasia. Hip instability of meaningful importance occurs in one to two percent of babies born at term. Hip dysplasia can range from barely detectable to severely malformed or dislocated. The congenital form, teratologic or non-reducible dislocation occurs as part of more complex conditions
Dwarfism, also known as short stature, occurs when an organism is extremely small. In humans, it is sometimes defined as an adult height of less than 4 feet 10 inches (58 in 147 cm), regardless of sex, although some individuals with dwarfism are slightly taller. Disproportionate dwarfism is characterized by either short limbs or a short torso. In cases of proportionate dwarfism, both the limbs and torso are unusually small. Normal intelligence and lifespan are usual.
A greenstick fracture is a fracture in a young, soft bone in which the bone bends and breaks. Greenstick fractures usually occur most often during infancy and childhood when bones are soft. The name is by analogy with green (i.e., fresh) wood which similarly breaks on the outside when bent. It was discovered by British-American orthopedist, John Insall, and Polish-American orthopedist, Michael Slupecki. Pediatric fractures can be classified as complete and incomplete
Incomplete: There are three basic forms of incomplete fractures: The first is the greenstick fracture, a transverse fracture of the cortex which extends into the midportion of the bone and becomes oriented along the longitudinal axis of the bone without disrupting the opposite cortex. The second form is a torus or buckling fracture, caused by impaction. They are usually the result of a force acting on the longitudinal axis of the bone: they are typically a consequence of a fall on an outstretched arm, so they mainly involve the distal radial metaphysis.The word torus is derived from the Latin word 'torus,' meaning swelling or protuberance. The third is a bow fracture in which the bone becomes curved along its longitudinal axis.
Complete fractures: There are also physeal fractures (fractures involving the physis, the growth plate, which is not present in adults). The Salter-Harris classification is the most used to describe these fractures
Growing pains are pain symptoms relatively common in children ages . Typically, they are located in the muscles, rather than the joints, of the leg and less commonly the arm. They are usually felt on both sides, and appear late in the day or at night, waking the child, with pain varying from mild to very severe. Pain is absent by the morning, and there are no objective clinical signs of inflammation. Pain can recur nightly or be absent for days to months. Growing pain is not associated with other serious disease and usually resolves by late childhood, but frequent episodes are capable of having a substantial effect on the life of the child. Growing pains were first described as such in 1823 by a French doctor. In the absence of limping, loss of mobility, or physical signs, laboratory investigation to exclude other diagnoses is not warranted.] Restless legs syndrome is sometimes misdiagnosed as growing pains.
Pigeon toe (also known as metatarsus varus, metatarsus adductus, in-toe gait, intoeing or false clubfoot) is a condition which causes the toes to point inward when walking. It is most common in infants and children under two years of age and, when not the result of simple muscle weakness, normally arises from underlying conditions, such as a twisted shin bone or an excessive anteversion (femoral head is more than 15° from the angle of torsion) resulting in the twisting of the thigh bone when the front part of a person's foot is turned in. Severe cases are considered a form of clubfoot. The cause of in-toeing can be differentiated based on the location of the disalignment. The variants are:
- Curved foot (metatarsus adductus)
- Twisted shin (tibial torsion)
- Twisted thighbone (femoral anteversion)
Unequal leg length (also termed leg length inequality, LLI or leg length discrepancy, LLD) is where the legs are either different lengths or appear to be different lengths because of misalignment. There are two main types of leg length inequalities: Structural differences are caused by the legs themselves being measurably different in length, usually due to differences in the length of the femur in the thigh or the tibia and fibula bones in the lower leg. This may be a birth defect or it may occur after a broken leg, serious infection, or local damage to one of the growth plates in a leg.
Torticollis, also known as a crick in the neck, wry neck or loxia, is a dystonic condition defined by an abnormal, asymmetrical head or neck position, which may be due to a variety of causes. The term torticollis is derived from the Latin words tortus for twisted and collum for neck.The most common case has no obvious cause, and the pain and difficulty with turning the head usually goes away after a few days, even without treatment. Torticollis is a fixed or dynamic tilt, rotation, or flexion of the head and/or neck. The type of torticollis can be described depending on the positions of the head and neck.
Pediatric Orthopaedics (Muscles & Bones)
Treatments We Offer
- Child Development
- General Pediatric Medicine
- General Pediatric Surgery
- Pediatric Cardiology
- Pediatric Dentistry
- Prenatal Consultation
- Well Baby Clinics with Vaccination & Immunization programs
- Preventive Health care advocated through a series of awareness and wellness programs that we run from time to time
- Pediatric Physiotherapy
Infrastructure for treatment :
- Critical care supported by our Level 3, state of the art Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) and Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU)
- 24*7 Emergency & Transport Services
This is not a complete list of all the diagnostic procedures and treatments we provide. The information provided is for educational reference only and should not be seen as medical advice.
Please consult one of our qualified healthcare specialists for an accurate diagnosis before starting on any treatment.